The act may be a necessary but not sufficient cause of criminal harm. Intermediate events may have occurred between the act and the result. Therefore, the cause of the act and the prohibited result must be approximate or close in time. To convict a person of a crime, that person must have committed the act in question voluntarily, intentionally, knowingly, or deliberately.
The lack of mental intention to commit the crime could result in a verdict of innocence, since the accused did not deliberately intend to break the law or cause bodily harm. This element of a crime will vary depending on the circumstances. In a murder case, for example, it is enough to demonstrate premeditated malice for mens rea. Other crimes may require conscious, deliberate, or reckless reading of the media.
For a criminal act to be considered a crime, the mental state of the perpetrator must be taken into account. No law recognizes thought as a criminal act (yet); therefore, for something to be considered a crime, there must be an act (that is, it doesn't necessarily matter if the mens rea was present until the actus reus (such as premeditated crimes), provided that both coincide at the same time during the criminal act. While the four criminal elements explained above are part of almost all crimes (with some exceptions), some crimes contain additional components. The mens rea theory dictates that a defendant can only be considered guilty when there is criminal intent.
The theory states that in order to convict a defendant of a crime, the prosecution must establish the criminal intent of the accused. Mens rea in Latin means “guilty mind”, and this element refers to the mental state of the accused when he committed the crime. Under common law, conduct could not be considered criminal unless the accused had some level of intention (whether purpose, knowledge, or recklessness) with respect to the nature of his alleged conduct and the existence of the factual circumstances in which the law considered it criminal. So how is an attempt different from a conspiracy? A conspiracy occurs when two or more people agree to commit a criminal act (e.g., while some crimes require additional components (this can also vary by jurisdiction), there are some critical elements to every crime in the United States.
An act must be voluntary, the accused must control the action in order for it to be considered a criminal act. In general, mens rea and actus reus must occur at the same time, that is, the criminal intention must precede or coexist with the criminal act, or in some way activate the criminal act. To convict the accused, these elements of a crime must be proven in a court of law beyond a reasonable doubt. To be found guilty of conspiracy, prosecutors must prove that two or more people planned to commit some type of criminal offence and took steps to achieve it.
Before a court finds a defendant guilty of a criminal offence, the prosecution must present evidence that, even when the evidence chosen by the defense, is credible and sufficient to demonstrate beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant committed all elements of the particular crime being charged with.